Heckler & Koch PSG1

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Heckler & Koch PSG1
TypeSniper rifle
Place of originWest Germany
Service history
In service1972–present
Used bySee Users
WarsWar in Iraq (2013–2017)
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
Production history
DesignerHeckler & Koch
  • PSG1A1
  • MSG90
  • MSG90A1
Mass7.2 kg (15.87 lb)
Length1,230 mm (48.4 in)
Barrel length650 mm (25.6 in)
Width59 mm (2.3 in)
Height258 mm (10.2 in) with telescopic sight

Cartridge7.62×51mm NATO
ActionRoller-delayed blowback
Muzzle velocity868 m/s (2,848 ft/s) (Bullet velocities are highly variable as this metric is dependent on bullet weight and both the powder used and the weight of the powder charge. The velocity shown above is only a representative sample measurement.)
Effective firing range1,000 m (1,094 yd)
Maximum firing range1200 meters
Feed system5, 10 or 20-round detachable box magazine. 50 round drum also compatible.
SightsHensoldt ZF 6×42 PSG1 telescopic sight with illuminated reticle

The Heckler & Koch PSG1 (Präzisionsschützengewehr, German for "precision marksman rifle") is a semi-automatic sniper rifle designed and produced by the German company Heckler & Koch.


This rifle is said to have been developed in response to the Munich massacre at the 1972 Summer Olympics. The West German police units at the time lacked the precision shooting capability to effectively neutralize the terrorists to prevent the hostages being killed. H&K was then commissioned to create a high-accuracy, large-magazine capacity, semi-automatic rifle for law enforcement and military use.[1]

In addition, the rifle has been licensed for local production in Pakistan by Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF) as the PSR-90 and Mexico by DGIM as the Fusil Morelos Bicentenario, a heavily redesigned variant featuring an AR-15 style forward assist.[citation needed]

Design details[edit]

The PSG1 is mechanically based on the Heckler & Koch G3 battle rifle that employs a roller-delayed blowback operating system. Its shot-to-shot variation is expected to be better than 1 minute of angle (MOA) with match ammunition. This level of accuracy is only average compared to most modern bolt action sniper rifles, but is still exceptional for a semi-automatic rifle and at one time was claimed to be "one of the most accurate semi-automatic sniper rifles in the world."[2]

The rifle has a strengthened receiver with rails welded over the channels where a retractable buttstock would slide and features numerous other upgrades and such to meet the necessities of police sniper units. The two sliding locking rollers that hold the bolt in battery during firing are not cylindrical shaped like in normal G3 rifles, but semi-cylindrical shaped to offer a non-random more precise positioning on corresponding flat surfaces in the barrel extension locking recesses. The PSG1 also features a low-noise bolt closing device (similar to the forward assist on many M16 rifles).

PSG1s are not supplied with iron sights but come equipped with the Hensoldt ZF 6×42 PSG1 scope with an illuminated reticle. The scope has a built-in bullet drop compensation range adjustment feature which can be adjusted from 100 to 600 m.

It has a heavy free-floating barrel with polygonal rifling and an adjustable stock. The stock is of high impact matte black plastic and has a high degree of adjustment. It is adjustable for length, and includes a pivoting butt cap and a vertically-adjustable cheekpiece. The forend is fitted with a T-way rail for sling swivel or tripod.

The rifle also features a removable and adjustable trigger unit, for further individual fitting of the rifle. The trigger pull can be modified and the whole assembly is removable from the pistol grip. The pistol grip is of a target-style with an adjustable palm shelf.

The PSG1's official suppressor is from Brügger & Thomet (B and T).[3]


The PSG1A1 variant was introduced by Heckler & Koch in 2006, and features two major improvements. First, the cocking handle was relocated a couple of degrees counter-clockwise. This was due to the fact that when locked rearward, it could physically interfere with the long scopes often used on the rifles. The second modification involved the replacement of the outdated Hensoldt scope. Non-police users often found the scope's 600 m range limitation and simple crosshairs inadequate for their needs. In addition, the rechargeable batteries are difficult to recharge and for which to find replacements. A final fault is that Hensoldt does not service the scope in the United States. For these reasons, the PSG1A1 has been outfitted with a Schmidt & Bender 3–12×50 Police Marksman II scope, mounted on 34 mm (1.3 in) rings. To remedy brass ejection a brass catcher must be installed.


Heckler & Koch MSG90
TypeDesignated marksman rifle
Place of originGermany
Service history
In service1990–present
Used bySee Users
Production history
DesignerHeckler & Koch
ManufacturerHeckler & Koch
  • MSG90A1
  • MSG90A2
Mass6.3 kg (13.89 lb)
Length1,230 mm (48.4 in)
Barrel length600 mm (23.6 in)
Width59 mm (2.3 in)
Height258 mm (10.2 in) with telescopic sight

Cartridge7.62×51mm NATO
ActionRoller-delayed blowback
Muzzle velocity868 m/s (2,848 ft/s)
Maximum firing range1200 meters
Feed system5 or 20-round magazine
SightsHensoldt ZF 6×42 PSG1 telescopic sight with illuminated reticle

The MSG90 (Militärisches Scharfschützengewehr, German for "militarized sharp-shooting rifle") is a militarized variant of the PSG1 that is both strengthened and lightened while less expensive.[4] Compared to the PSG1 which is regarded as a pure sniper rifle, the MSG90 can fill the role of a designated marksman rifle.[5][6]

The PSG1 and MSG90 have different trigger packs. The MSG90 uses a modified version of the push pin trigger packs of H&K roller-delayed select-fire assault rifles. The composite shoulder stock of the MSG90 is adjustable for height (cheek), length of pull (shoulder), and is smaller and lighter than that of the PSG1. MSG90s have a slightly shorter contoured barrel to help with harmonic stabilization and consistent whip instead of the PSG1's heavy barrel, but remain free-floating. As a result, these particular MSG90 A1s have a threaded barrel capable of attaching a suppressor, which is an advantage over the PSG1.

The sighting system uses the multipurpose Weaver rail mount rather than the Picatinny rail for affixing sighting systems which can be purchased separately. This same scope mounting system is used on the HK21E, HK23E, and G41 (discontinued) series.

The barrel is weighted at the muzzle to aid harmonic stabilization of barrel whip to enhance accuracy. The addition of a flash suppressor adds to the overall length.




Country Organization Model Quantity Date Reference
 Albania Special forces _ [7]
 Finland Karhu Team (Special Operations Unit of the Helsinki police department) PSG1 _ _ [8]
 France 1st Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment of the French Army MSG90 _ _ [9]
 India National Security Guard
Indian Army
_ _ [10][11]
 Indonesia Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group of the Indonesian Navy MSG90 _ _ [12]
Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group of the Indonesian Army MSG90 _ _ [12]
 Iraq Iraqi Armed Forces MSG90A1 _ _ [13]
 Ireland Army Ranger Wing (Historical, no longer in service) PSG1 _ _ [14]
 Japan Special Assault Team PSG1 _ _ [15]
 Lithuania Lithuanian Armed Forces MSG90A1 _ _ [13]
 Luxembourg Unité Spéciale de la Police intervention unit of the Grand Ducal Police PSG1 _ _ [16][17][18]
 Malaysia 11th Grup Gerak Khas (GGK) Special Operation Unit of the Malaysian Army MSG90A1 _ _ [19]
Pasukan Khas Laut (PASKAL) Special Operation Unit of the Royal Malaysian Navy _ _ [20]
Pasukan Khas Udara (PASKAU) Special Operation Unit of the Royal Malaysian Air Force PSG1A1 _ _ [21]
Pasukan Gerakan Khas Tactical Counter-Terrorism Unit of the Royal Malaysia Police _ _
 Mexico Standard marksman rifle of the Mexican Army
Also used by the Policía Federal
MSG90SDN _ _ [22]
   Nepal Nepalese Army MSG90 100 _ [23]
 Netherlands Dienst Speciale Interventies (DSI) Unit Expertise & Operationele Ondersteuning police snipers of the Korps landelijke politiediensten Special Intervention Service. PSG1 _ _ [24]
 Norway Hærens Jegerkommando (HJK), Army Special Forces Command and Marinejegerkommandoen (MJK), Navy Special Forces Command. MSG90 _ _ [25]
 Pakistan Used by the Pakistan Army. Produced under license by Pakistan Ordnance Factories PSR 90 _ _ [26]
 Philippines Philippine Army Special Operations Command
Presidential Security Group
Philippine National Police Special Action Force
_ _ [27]
 South Africa South African Special Forces Brigade PSG1 _ _ [28]
 South Korea Republic of Korea Naval Special Warfare Brigade MSG90
_ _ [27]
 Spain Grupo Especial de Operaciones of the Spanish police

Grup Especial d'Intervenció (GEI) of the Mossos d'Esquadra

_ _ _ [29]
 Taiwan _ _ _ _ [30]
 Turkey Turkish Special Forces MSG90 _ _ [31][32]
 United Kingdom Used as a precision (sniper) rifle by specialist firearms officers in the British police PSG1 _ [33]
 United States Hostage Rescue Team of the Federal Bureau of Investigation MSG90 _ _ [34]
Delta Force – 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) _ _ [35]
 Vietnam Mobile Police Force (Canh Sat Co Dong) PSR-90 _ _ [36]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Alex C (2013-11-07). "Shooting the H&K MSG90". The Firearms Blog. Archived from the original on 2016-02-21. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
  2. ^ "2008 Heckler & Koch Military and LE brochure" (PDF). Photos.imageevent.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-11-05. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  3. ^ "MSG90 and PSG1 suppressor". B and T. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
  4. ^ "Heckler und Koch HK MSG90, HK MSG3 sniper rifle (Germany)". Archived from the original on 2018-10-14. Retrieved 2019-02-13.
  5. ^ "Shooting the H&K MSG90 –". 7 November 2013. Archived from the original on 2019-02-13. Retrieved 2019-02-13.
  6. ^ "H&K MSG90 Sniper Rifle Overview –". 4 February 2016. Archived from the original on 2019-02-13. Retrieved 2019-02-13.
  7. ^ "Special operations and counterterrorist forces". Archived from the original on 2013-08-22. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
  8. ^ "Kolmoismurhaaja Mika Murasen ehdonalaishakemus hyväksyttiin". MTV. Archived from the original on 2013-09-28. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  9. ^ "HK MSG90" (in French). French Army. 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-04-03. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  10. ^ Bharat Rakshak (2008). "NATIONAL SECURITY GUARDS". Bharat-rakshak.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  11. ^ "Weapons division may trigger row". The Times of India. 2014. Archived from the original on 2017-04-25. Retrieved 2017-04-24.
  12. ^ a b "Kopassus & Kopaska – Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije". Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 2010-08-22. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
  13. ^ a b "Lietuvos kariuomenė :: Ginkluotė ir karinė technika » Snaiperiniai šautuvai » Snaiperinis šautuvas H&K MSG-90A1". Kam.lt. Archived from the original on 2015-05-16. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  14. ^ O'Brien, Paul; Fitzgerald, Wayne (2020). Shadow warriors : the Irish Army Ranger Wing. Cork. ISBN 978-1-78117-763-1. OCLC 1152255624.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  15. ^ "日本の特殊部隊 – (in Japanese)". 2012-11-16. Archived from the original on 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  16. ^ "Unofficial Pistols Page, Equipment". USP.lu – Unofficial Website of Unité Spéciale, Officially Endorsed. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
  17. ^ "L'Unite d'Intervention de la Police Luxembourgeoise" (PDF). RAIDS Magazine (in French). March 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
  18. ^ Lasterra, Juan Pablo (2004). "UPS Unidad Especial de la Policia Luxembourguesa" (PDF). ARMAS Magazine (in Spanish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-22. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
  19. ^ "Grup Gerak Khas – Malaysian Special Operations". Shadowspear.com. Archived from the original on 2010-05-02. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  20. ^ "Pasukan Khas Laut – Malaysian Special Operations". Shadowspear.com. Archived from the original on 2009-08-02. Retrieved 2010-03-14.
  21. ^ Thompson, Leroy (December 2008). "Malaysian Special Forces". Special Weapons. Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  22. ^ "Mexico Mexican army land ground forces military equipment armoured vehicle pictures information desc – Mexico Mexican army land ground forces UK – Central America army land forces UK". Armyrecognition.com. Archived from the original on 2015-06-14. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  23. ^ "Legacies of War in the Company of Peace: Firearms in Nepal" (PDF). Nepal Issue Brief. Small Arms Survey (2): 5. May 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-08. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  24. ^ "Scherpschutters BBE Politie". Arrestatieteam.nl. Archived from the original on 2010-10-20. Retrieved 2010-06-18.
  25. ^ "Norwegian Armed forced". Mil.no. Retrieved 2010-11-24.[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ "POF – Semi Automatic Precision Sniper Rifle PSR 90". Pof.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 2014-12-09. Retrieved 2015-05-31.
  27. ^ a b Special Weapons, February 2010 issue. Page 67-68.
  28. ^ "military issued sniper rifles". Archived from the original on 2016-11-29. Retrieved 2016-12-12.
  29. ^ "Grupo Especial de Operaciones – Fusiles de precisión". Policia.es (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2009-12-12. Retrieved 2009-12-10.
  30. ^ Jones, Richard (2009). Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009–2010. Jane's Information Group. p. 903. ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  31. ^ Army Recognition. "Turkish Military Forces". Archived from the original on 7 November 2012. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  32. ^ "Heckler & Koch HK MSG-90 Semi-Automatic Sniper Rifle / Designated Marksman Rifle (DMR)". Military Factory. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  33. ^ Collins, Steve (1998). The Good Guys Wear Black. England: Arrow. p. 226. ISBN 0-09-918682-9.
  34. ^ Sumner, Dominique; Runyon, Doug (2006). "Anything, anytime, anywhere: The unofficial history of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hostage Rescue Team". Swat Digest. Archived from the original on 2006-05-21. Retrieved 2015-10-29.
  35. ^ Fred Pushies, Weapons of Delta Force (New York and London: Zenith Press, 2010), p. 48.
  36. ^ "Trung Quốc 'choáng': CSCĐ Việt Nam dùng 'Súng bẻ góc' Israel". Archived from the original on 2018-08-29. Retrieved 2018-08-29.

External links[edit]